A Swaging machine is a metal forming technique that is used to attach ferrules and other end fittings to wire cable, hoses, tubes, rods and other similar materials. Unlike traditional hammering methods where the materials are inserted into a hollow steel can, swaging places the materials inside of a larger die that is then closed by hydraulic pressure to form the material. This process is much more precise than hammering, and it provides an efficient method for attaching terminals to cable, tubing, rods and other products. It also offers the added benefit of eliminating any secondary processes that may otherwise be required to finish the product.
The swaging machines available range from simple, portable hand-operated tools that are often used for service level swaging requirements, to larger powered equipment that is sometimes used for high-volume swaging production. Some of these machines are also capable of providing an initial marking that is visible on both the nut and fitting body to indicate when the swaging has been completed, which can help reduce installation time.
Rotary swaging machines utilize a split die that separates and closes up to 2,000 times per minute. The split die is mounted into a spindle that is then rotated by a motor. As the spindle rotates, a centrifugal force is created which tosses the hammers and dies outward against a series of rollers that surround the spindle. The hammers strike the dies, compressing and closing them to form the workpiece being swaged.
The swaging machine can swage wire cables, rods and other similar materials that have an outer diameter of up to 3-3/8 inch. It can also create a variety of internal shapes for tubes with the use of shaped mandrels. These shapes can include a variety of radiuses and angles, as well as splines or contoured surfaces. The swaging machine is also useful for forming long or steep tapers, and large reductions.
The process of swaging has been widely investigated in terms of theoretical calculation, simulation and experiment. The inhomogeneity of axial material flow during swaging has been addressed by numerous studies, including the work of Wu et al. who developed a 2D-axisymmetric FE model to study the axial deformation during rotary swaging with a cylindrical workpiece. The results showed that a convex shape is formed on the tip of the workpiece due to the inhomogeneity. They suggest that the inhomogeneity can be reduced by a lower relative radial reduction and higher feed per stroke. They also suggest that the neutral plane could be located closer to the deformed area for softer material like aluminum. These findings are supported by experimental results.